Modomics - A Database of RNA Modifications

Published on None in volume (2016) Biochemistry 55: 2944-2959 .

PubMed ID: 27163633

DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00382


Human APOBEC3B (A3B) is a member of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases, which function as DNA mutators and restrict viral pathogens and endogenous retrotransposons. Recently, A3B was identified as a major source of genetic heterogeneity in several human cancers. Here, we determined the solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the catalytically active C-terminal domain (CTD) of A3B and performed detailed analyses of its deaminase activity. The core of the structure comprises a central five-stranded β-sheet with six surrounding helices, common to all A3 proteins. The structural fold is most similar to that of A3A and A3G-CTD, with the most prominent difference being found in loop 1. The catalytic activity of A3B-CTD is ∼15-fold lower than that of A3A, although both exhibit a similar pH dependence. Interestingly, A3B-CTD with an A3A loop 1 substitution had significantly increased deaminase activity, while a single-residue change (H29R) in A3A loop 1 reduced A3A activity to the level seen with A3B-CTD. This establishes that loop 1 plays an important role in A3-catalyzed deamination by precisely positioning the deamination-targeted C into the active site. Overall, our data provide important insights into the determinants of the activities of individual A3 proteins and facilitate understanding of their biological function.