Modomics - A Database of RNA Modifications

Published on None in volume (2019) Nat Struct Mol Biol 26: 1176-1183 .

PubMed ID: 31792451 

DOI: 10.1038/s41594-019-0343-6


HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) promotes degradation of the antiviral APOBEC3 (A3) proteins through the host ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to enable viral immune evasion. Disrupting Vif-A3 interactions to reinstate the A3-catalyzed suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication is a potential approach for antiviral therapeutics. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Vif recognizes A3 proteins remain elusive. Here we report a cryo-EM structure of the Vif-targeted C-terminal domain of human A3F in complex with HIV-1 Vif and the cellular cofactor core-binding factor beta (CBFβ) at 3.9-Å resolution. The structure shows that Vif and CBFβ form a platform to recruit A3F, revealing a direct A3F-recruiting role of CBFβ beyond Vif stabilization, and captures multiple independent A3F-Vif interfaces. Together with our biochemical and cellular studies, our structural findings establish the molecular determinants that are critical for Vif-mediated neutralization of A3F and provide a comprehensive framework of how HIV-1 Vif hijacks the host protein degradation machinery to counteract viral restriction by A3F.