Modomics - A Database of RNA Modifications

Published on None in volume None.

PubMed ID: 32859890

DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-18068-6


Mitochondria generate most cellular energy via oxidative phosphorylation. Twenty-two species of mitochondrial (mt-)tRNAs encoded in mtDNA translate essential subunits of the respiratory chain complexes. mt-tRNAs contain post-transcriptional modifications introduced by nuclear-encoded tRNA-modifying enzymes. They are required for deciphering genetic code accurately, as well as stabilizing tRNA. Loss of tRNA modifications frequently results in severe pathological consequences. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of post-transcriptional modifications of all human mt-tRNAs, including 14 previously-uncharacterized species. In total, we find 18 kinds of RNA modifications at 137 positions (8.7% in 1575 nucleobases) in 22 species of human mt-tRNAs. An up-to-date list of 34 genes responsible for mt-tRNA modifications are provided. We identify two genes required for queuosine (Q) formation in mt-tRNAs. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the decoding system and could help to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of human mitochondrial diseases caused by aberrant tRNA modifications.